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Volume 4 – Issue 1 – 2022


Models Of Metallic Bonding And Free Electrons

Peter F. Lang

Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet St., London, WC1E 7HX, (UK)

PAGE NO: 050-055


This work examines the theory of metals. Although the free electron theory is successful in explaining Ohm’s law there are fundamental errors with the theory. Inadequacies of this theory and the ions in a sea of electrons model of metals are described. An alternative approach to metallic bonding and conduction which does conflict with band theory is discussed. Evidence and calculations show that the electron drift velocity is much higher than usually presented in university text books and there are fewer free electrons per atom in a metal.