Exploratory Environmental Science Research
Article In Press
Modern Problems Of Integrated Use Of Water And Energy Resources Of The Aral Sea Basin
Petrov G. N.*, Akhmedov Kh. M.
Center for Innovative Development of Science and New Technologies of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Tajikistan
Due to the extensive development of irrigated agriculture in the 2nd half of the last century, all the available water resources were almost completely exhausted in the Aral Sea basin. This led to the death of the Aral Sea, land degradation and conflict of interest between the countries of the region. This conflict has been further aggravated by the development of hydropower, which uses the same water resources. Despite all the efforts undertaken in the past 30 years, both by the basin countries themselves and by international organizations, it has so far not been possible to achieve any tangible positive results in resolving these conflicts. The article discusses the current situation in the water sector of the Aral Sea basin, analyzes existing problems and provides suggestions for solving them.
Conflict of interest, Demography, Energy, Environmental disaster, Hydropower, Irrigation, Population growth, Water resources.
Geoelectrical Estimation Of Depth To Fractured Shale Aquifers Within Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike, South Eastern Nigeria
A. C. EKWE1*, O.S. ONWUKA2, G-B AZUOKO1, O.V. OMONONA1, LEMCHI CHIDOZIE, E.E.NKITNAM, G.C. MBAEYI AND C.G. OKEUGO2
1 Department of Physics/Geology/Geophysics, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike, Nigeria
2 Department of Geology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
The depths to the fractured Shale aquifer at various points within the study area were determined using the electrical resistivity method. Twenty (20) vertical electrical soundings(VES) in the Schlumberger configuration were acquired with ABEM SAS 1000 Terrameter with a maximum half current (AB/2) electrode spacing of 200m. We determined layer parameters using partial curve matching techniques while processing and modelling was carried out with the IPI2winTM software. The VES results were interpreted to obtain layer parameters (aquifer thickness, resistivity and depth to aquifer) for the entire area. Interpretative cross-sections taken along three profiles was used to delineate aquifer thickness and the depth to the fractured shale aquifers in the study area. Results show that aquifer thickness ranges from 5.5 m to 44.7m while depth to aquifer ranges from 10.93m to 56.9m. These findings are fundamentally very important and should be considered exploiting for water resources in the area.
Keywords: Modelling, Fractures, Shale, VES, Water
Thermal neutron fission of Uranium-233 by Monte-Carlo Method
Engineering Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey.
In order to investigate the thermal fission of U-233, a detailed simulation program has been put together with an operational mode. In the calculations carried out by Monte-Carlo method, the distribution of the secondary mass chain yield obtained through slow neutron fission, independent yield of secondary products as well as their independent yield fractions have been calculated and charge distributions of secondary products and their most probable charge values have been found. The variation of the number of prompt neutrons emitted from the product with the mass number; and similarly energy spectra of the products in the laboratory and in the center of mass systems have been studied. Due to the fact that Adiabatic model has been found to have produced better results in slow neutron fission systems during previous experimental studies, the rate of deformation energy in this study has been calculated by utilizing adiabatic model as well. The distribution of the energy of the gamma rays emitted from the product with the mass of the product itself has been investigated. The width parameter of the secondary product charge distribution of U-233 in thermal neutron fission has also been investigated. The results obtained have been compared with the other thermal fission systems and experimental values available.
Keywords: U-233, Thermal fission, Yield, Monte-Carlo.
Geobotanical Prospecting for Underwater Deposits in Desert and Semi Arid Region. Patagonia Argentina by Remote Sensing Studies
Javier Ulibarrena1*, Adolfo Rojo2
1Ex Investigador en Sensores Remotos. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Argentina
2Ex Profesional de apoyo a la Investigación. CIC- Universidad Nacional de la Plata Facultad de Ciencias Naturales. Cátedra de Hidrogeología. La Plata. Argentina
The relationship between natural vegetation and the presence of groundwater, particularly in arid regions, is a well known fact. The distribution of certain vegetable species in different environments, the topographic position and the sanitary state of the vegetation can indicate those areas have possibilities of carrying potable water in the grounds and rocks.
This study was carried out in the vicinities of Puerto Deseado in the Argentine Patagonia. This region, with warm climate and high pluvial precipitations millions of years ago, is undergoing a constant severe desertification due to the formation of the Andes mountain range. At present, the annual rain is not over 250 mm and dry West-Southwest winds are constant.
The study, a combination of geobotanical observation techniques performed on satellite images, together with a field survey, allowed the identification of several potable water springs (about 50). Reddish spots were detected through the visual analysis of various Landsat 4 images, infrared 7, 5, 4 (RGB) version, which in infrared combination indicate vegetation. They are located on the surface of Tehuelches formation in defined topographic positions, from which the presence of water in the subsurface could be deduced. The Rodados Tehuelches formation constitute the most accessible rainwater and nival reservoir.
Noise Pollution Monitoring And Health Impacts From Nigerian Busiest International Airport
Godwin Chigaekwu Ezeh1*, Oluwasesan Hezekiah Joshua2, Olufemi Oyediran Laoye3
1Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Caleb University, Imota, Lagos Nigeria
The problem of urban traffic noise pollution is universal and in the past few decades it has become a major concern for both public and policy-makers. Muritala Mohammed airport is a typical example of this problem as it is the busiest in West Africa and located in the heart of Lagos metropolis with its operational routes passing over many densely populated suburbs. Noise due to Lagos airport was monitored simultaneously at 12 locations within the airport and 2 sites in the neighborhood of the airport for a period of five months. Measurements were performed for a period of 10 minutes at each location, repeated 3 to 5 times during peak and off-peak h to account for fluctuations at each location. This was done using the integrated CR-811 B type 1 model sound level meter placed at 1.7 m above the ground. In addition, means of central tendencies, regression analysis and noise mapping were employed to deduce further inter-relationships in the sampled locations. In addition, a structured open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information about the perception of residents living around the airport. Findings indicated that the average diurnal and nocturnal airport noise values ranged from 52.30 to 81.30 dBA and 42.10 to 65.70 dBA respectively and therefore, violated the standard outdoor limits in most locations especially at the runway and apron sites. Based on the perception of the residents living around the airport regarding impacts of noise due to airport operations on their health, insomnia (68 %), hearing loss (21 %), headache (36 %) and disturbance on communication networks (17 %) were the major health impacts on the receptors. Therefore, windows for provision of noise abatement options in Lagos airport should be prioritized.