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Govt. of India Trust : E/11049/Rajkot
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Volume 2 – Issue 2 – 2021

Original Research Paper

Application Of Materials Science To Celestial Matter, I: Dense Core Of End-Of-Life Stars And Black Holes

Jean-Louis Crolet1*, Bijan Kermani2, Jean-Louis Benoit-Guyod3

1PhD at the University of Paris-Orsay (France), former corrosion–materials expert at Total, 36 Chemin Mirassou, 64140, Lons (FRANCE)
2Visiting Professor, Leeds University (UK)
3Emeritus Professor, Grenoble University (FRANCE)

PAGE NO: 77-107


Contrary to the usual background of astrophysics, dense matter and close packing are the domains of excellence of materials science, and the metallic bond of common metals is precisely compatible with endless compressions. Consequently, the age-old “degenerate matter” of astrophysicists is just a generalised metallic state driven by extreme densities. Hence the magnetic field systematically induced by any large spinning sphere with “free electrons”. Likewise, the average density of black holes theoretically varies from nearly that of space vacuum to nearly that of atomic nuclei, whereas just after the metallic transition, hydrogen density is about 1. Therefore, compressed matter should progressively evolve from dilute gas to light metallic hydrogen and compressed common matter, and subsequently to exotic metallic alloys made of free electrons and more and more charged cations, until volumeless atomic nuclei, then a progressive reduction of their atomic number until metallic helium, and finally a closed packed structure of protons and electrons, i.e. a nearly incompressible “protonium”. Nevertheless, a too massive black hole might induce a nuclear explosion of its central body. For our universe, such “Big Boom” would only differ from the standard Big Bang in its very first second. The detailed substance of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes is also described.